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晚婚晚育的代价

    本文来自微信公众号:元淦恭说(ID:yuangg173),作者:元淦恭,头图来自视觉中国。2018年即将过去,1958年出生的男性,1968年出生的女性,都到了退休年龄。“50后”、“60后”全面进入“退休时间”,这一个世代的财富晚景,成为中国社会变迁的注脚。改革开放四十年,依照不同的分割方法,不少人可以把它分成若干个阶段。然而,对于中国的城市居民而言,最重要的立竿见影的分水岭无疑是1998年,这一年,中国取消了住房实物分配,房地产市场从此启动。时至今日,“房子”撩动中国社会最敏感的神经,始终是公共舆论的最大焦点。1998年以后,房价上涨的大趋势始终没有改变,即使偶有回调,幅度也相对有限。尤其是2008年“四万亿”带来的宽松之后,全国各线级城市房价皆一日千里,除了极个别行业极个别企业的从业者,已经没有人的收入能够跑赢房价。相对于收入,房子太贵,房子早已是中国绝大多数家庭最重要的资产。这时候,人们意识到一个很有意思的现象。对于“50后”、“60后”而言,人与人之间的收入差距并不重要,关键是看房子的差距。40年前,恢复高考的第一批大学生走入校园,成为“天之骄子”,因为极低的录取率和包分配的政策,这些大学生中哪怕是大专的,都有了和其他没上大学的人全然不同的命运。然而,从整个国家的大盘子来看,50后、60后群体累计上过大学的也不过几百万,而他们的人口基数超过3亿,也就是说,98%以上的50后、60后是没有接受过正规全日制高等教育的(连大专都没上过顶多上过夜校、技校等)。50后、60后一代人,固然有政界、商界的巨擘,但那是极个别。大多数50后、60后的人生轨迹,就是七八十年代顶替或者分配进一个国有或集体单位,运气好的话,在这个单位呆到退休,运气不好的话,在上世纪九十年代的国企改革潮中下岗,可能找到工作,也可能买断工龄之类一直熬到退休年龄再开始领退休金。然而,虽然这一个世代内部的收入绝对差距并不大,但财富积累水平却可能有天渊之别,这一切都是因为房子。其实,对50后、60后的世代而言,房价收入比其实从来也没有低过,这和70后是完全不同的。70后赶上上世纪九十年代的经济起飞和加入WTO之后的增长红利,毕业时的收入起点就比同期的50后、60后要高得多,反而从纯粹现金的意义上,70后一代经历过一段房价收入比相对较低的黄金时期。然而,70后中只有个别人赶上了住房实物分配,而50后、60后获取房产的主要形态就是住房实物分配和98房改。一家人分没分过房子,是夫妻双方都分了,还是只有一方分了,分别分了几套房子,这是构成50后、60后城市居民资产的底色。而有没有赶上过拆迁,又带来第二重机会,如果经历过拆迁带来的“一赔二”、“一赔三”,那就相当于本来分房子的红利又有了一个乘数。但这还不是50后、60后乃至他们子女资产状况的全部答案。上世纪八十年代,国家提倡“晚婚晚育”。2015年中国实施普遍“二孩”,“晚婚晚育”政策宣告终结。然而50后、60后中选择“晚婚晚育”的那帮人现在发现,选择晚育有着极其沉重的财富代价。50后的爹、90后的娃和60后的爹、80后的娃,完全是天渊之别。50后即算工作比60后早,但他们先工作的七十年代物质极其匮乏,因而50后比60后并没有多存下什么钱,甚至晚工作的60后,在参加工作时的收入基数还随着时代进步而水涨船高。(事实上到今天因为各种原因新入职的年轻人收入高于老人也是常态)。换言之,50后一般并不比60后有钱,更遑论和70后相比,要是遇上下岗潮的,就更惨了。而晚婚晚育导致的结果是,孩子也小。如果50后的孩子是70后末期到80后初期,如果上个本科甚至专科(这个世代的大学入学率已经高了很多),2000年前后毕业,工资收入一般也不会低于父辈,在当时的条件下,父母有点积蓄,孩子再努力一把,东拼拼西凑凑,哪怕是一线城市的房子首付,也是给得起的。然而,如果同样情况,孩子是85后甚至90后(55年以后出生的人响应政策晚婚晚育到30岁以上孩子就可能是90后),那可就惨了。对于50后而言,2001年到2010年如果在就业状态能够多存多少钱呢?根据国家统计局的统计,这10年城镇居民人均可支配收入加起来也就是120558元。从技术上来看,一对夫妇这十年加起来能多存20万,就是很牛逼的事了。然而,2010年才比2000年多20万,对买房有什么用呢?遑论早婚早育的这十年里孩子都挣了10年前很多自己都能挣这个数了,而晚婚晚育的这十年里还在养孩子。这一进一出的出入,那本身就是几十万了。50后、60后的城市居民,真正自己买过商品房的其实并不多。他们买过的第一套商品房,往往就是为孩子准备的婚房。可能很多人会质疑我上面的论述,孩子是90后的50后难道不能在2000年房价还低的时候就买房吗,非得等到孩子长大?问题就在于此。2008年房价起飞之前买房的世代,很多人都是以自己的钱为主,以父母的钱为辅。但随着房价飞涨,90后世代几乎丧失了“以自己的钱为主、以父母的钱为辅”的理论可能性。一般而言,65后甚至70后的父母普遍比50后的经济状况要好得多,父母是50后的90后初出社会,所面临的竞争之残酷,更是其他世代不可比的。对许多50后而言,晚婚晚育,最大的代价并不只是没有孩子的结婚压力未能咬牙提前多买房(孩子还在上中学还要上大学真的手上存了几万十万二十万也不敢随便拿来买房),而在于几乎让自己的孩子丧失了通过自身努力实现“上车”的可能。从某种程度上说,2008年以后毕业的人(也就是1986年及以后出生的),同等情况下差不多每晚工作一年,就等于白上一年班。这晚婚晚育的一念之差,也在很大程度上影响了他们晚年的生活质量。有意思的是,分房子分几套也好,能不能遇到拆迁也罢,对多数50后60后而言并不是自己能控制的。而只有早婚早育这一条,才是自己可控的。人啊,固然要靠个人的奋斗,但归根结底,还是要考虑历史的行程。本文来自微信公众号:元淦恭说(ID:yuangg173),作者:元淦恭。

    

    

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中粮期货试错交易:12月26日市场观察|中粮新浪财经

    中粮期货试错交易:12月26日市场观察,第一象限(杠杆象限)-大宗商品下跌势头不仅加速了现货资金的撤离,煤短裤占据主导地位,化工行业也经历了向下和停顿的浪潮。今天的商品指数下跌1.59%,工业产品下降2.20%,农产品下降0.41%。其中,煤炭行业下降3.27%,化工行业下降2.68%,软工业部门增长1.60%,建材行业1.16%,油脂行业0.99%,有色金属行业0.70%,饲料行业0.24%,粮食行业0.40%,贵金属0.44%。2018,美联储连续四季度提高利率,导致美国股市恐慌指数VIX指数上升19.79%,在期权市场未来市场的恐惧增加,危险因素的高浓度由美国政府关闭造成的,由此引发的关于全球经济放缓investors'concerns经济增长与货币环境趋紧,而抛售风险资产。今天,中国央行推出500亿元逆回购操作,但1400亿元逆回购到期,实现900亿元的净回购,也蒙上了一层阴影对市场的流动性状况在今年年底。今天的商品下跌加速,继续打新的年度低点,和短的趋势仍在继续。在一天的短暂的价格差距,煤炭板块领跌商品降幅最大,最主要的部门的增长势头也奠定了在市场下跌时的语气。同时,通过在外部市场原油崩溃的影响,化工板块,原油和燃料油为代表,大幅下跌集体和各种面板打停盘。中国进口391万4000桶原油,每天从沙特阿拉伯、俄罗斯、伊朗在十一月和美国。库存压力急剧增加,这使得原油及其下游产业链品种继续弱势,很难在短期内提高。At present, the linkage in the chemical industry sector is the strongest in the market, so chemical industry will continue to be the focus of our test. The short market broke out, the capital continued to flow out, and the turnover continued to adjust. Today, the Mandarin Commodity Index closed at 1.59%. Most commodities continued to fall, intra-day price spreads collectively strengthened, and many chemical products fell and stopped. 市场总流出是10亿6600万,和主要交易品种的总降水量的909亿7700万,这不仅树立了一个新的低的一年,也是突破1000亿关口连续十八个交易日内,将突破900亿大关。白天,黑、化工、农产品、二大板块流出2亿9000万、2亿4500万、7亿9200万分别以0.1%、1.66%的比例分别为3.32%和0.4%,流出。其中,黑色系资金更新为294亿5600万元,然后达到一个新的低。在化工行业资金145亿3600万元,调整后的新的一年新的低。农产品和主要部门的资金继续疲软,维持很长一段时间,在今年的低位调整。在数量上,2423万6400手交易的今天。黑色,化学和二大板块上涨16.32%,分别为25.95%和4.03%。农产品板块下跌10.78%。成交量反弹有限,继续低位调整。总体而言,商品共同削弱了天,化工产品表现出突出的性能,更多的交易机会;但资金继续在今年是低的,并没有改变下降的趋势;成交量保持低位调整,没有改善。在对市场各方面数据表现持续疲弱。建议投资者降低交易频率,锁定日内利润和积极控制隔夜风险。Soybean meal low shock adjustment, the downward trend remains unchanged. From the supply point of view, Brazil's soybean sowing progress in 2018/19 is ahead of schedule, the beginning of growth reaches the best level, and the highest yield is expected to reach 129 million tons. At the same time, the domestic soybean架构英文_南阳会计网网 and soybean meal stocks are still at a high level in the same period of history. As shown in the figure below, the total soybean meal stocks of oil factories in the main coastal areas of China are significantly higher than those in previous years, an increase of 48.84% over the same period of last year. 目前,豆粕供应充足。从需求的角度来看,有非洲猪瘟在中国没有有效的疫苗,所以非洲猪瘟有一个长期的趋势,在市场生猪存量仍在下降,和生产能力的持续下降对豆粕的需求难以提高。此外,由于中国和美国的关系出现缓和,中国开始进口大豆和油料近期启动率开始小幅上涨,豆粕供应增加,供应压力仍然很高,而下降的趋势在短期内难以改变。二象限(象限低量保护交换)不能清偿,等到明年。上海指数收盘下跌0.87%,为2505.07;深圳综合指数收盘下跌0.81%,为7332.35;中小企业倒闭0.54% 4785.35;和创业板收盘下跌0.85%,在1273.45。市场成交量小幅上涨,卖方的力量是强大的。这两个城市的总成交量为3亿4000万手,交易金额为2759亿3000万元。主要净流出量为9兆2023亿元,A股通过上海香港和深圳香港的净流出量为1亿4800万元。行业板块下跌,日用化工、环保、钢铁、煤炭领跌。Premier Li Keqiang of the State Council chaired the executive meeting of the State Council on December 24 to deploy more support to private economy and small and medium-sized enterprises, enhance the vitality and development confidence of market players; decided to cancel the bank account license of enterprises, compress the period of trademark patent examination, and comprehensively implement the "double random, one open" Market supervision. On the 24th, the Securities Regulatory Commission Party Committee (expanded) meeting conveyed the spirit of the Central Economic Work Conference and studied the work of promoting capital market reform, development and stability in 2019. The SFC said that efforts should be made to maintain the stable and healthy development of the capital market, to implement the requirements of "six stability" in all aspects of capital market supervision, and to speed up capital market reform and expand opening up. 从证监会下一阶段来看,资本市场监管九个方面将是资本市场监管的方向,如创新板,防范风险,多层次资本市场再融资。回到市场,K线上看,市场受到隔夜美国股市的影响跳低并接近一年的低,下午的护盾强度打开,遗憾的是最终还是退去。主力资金净流出已经再次加强。有两市38只个股,两市8只个股。The price gap is weak, the quantity can be enlarged, and there is a momentum of accelerating the decline. The future is not optimistic. On the plate, there are not too many bright spots on the industry plate. The A-share market has entered the junk time at the end of the year, and the specific actions need to be taken after a year. 第三象限(资源象限)——股票市场增长的波动、减税和减价面临的两难困境。截至11月18日,中国基金会注册私募基金12兆7900亿元,比上月增加0.16%,增长仍来自私募股权基金。and venture capital funds. From the figure above, the scale and proportion of private equity funds and venture capital funds have gradually increased since February, while the size of securities investment funds has gradually declined. Eighteen years has been a bumpy year for the venture capital industry. From the new capital management regulations in the first half of the year to the de-leveraging and then to the Sino-US trade war, the capital in the market was cut off and the overall economic environment was depressed, which made the industry cold winter. Since the second half of the year, the direction of national policy has been adjusted. In the second and third quarters, the meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee made clear fiscal and monetary policies, and strengthened the role of the capital market. 习近平主席亲自着手稳定民营企业发展,并在技术创新板上逐步走近快速发展轨道。According to our global asset model, with the economic rotation, venture capital industry plays a decisive role in the current environment. Because of the difficulty in raising funds, the major investment institutions focus more on defense, but this does not mean that they will not start. In the long run, the venture capital industry is still full of rising momentum. The new tax deduction rules have been finalized. The annual wages, service remuneration, manuscript remuneration and royalties obtained by individuals are integrated into the income. On the basis of the original allowable deduction of "three insurance and one fund", children's education, continuing education, interest on housing loans, housing rent, support for the elderly and serious illness medical treatment are added. The six new deductions are all related to people's livelihood, sufficiently reflecting the government's determination in the current e好高骛远的例子_任立佳网conomic environment, which is in line with the purpose of tax reduction and fee reduction at the Central Economic Conference on Friday. Similarly, in the current economic conference, the government faced the difficulties of domestic and foreign troubles directly, strengthened a series of policy means, and solved the problems pertinently. 在过去的18年中,整个风险投资行业已经深深地影响了。在过去19年的经济预期仍处于低潮,和行业机构需要提前准备。由于萎缩的估值,从长期来看,这一时期也是优质的项目一个很好的出发时间,这就考验投资者的专业性。我们坚信,创投行业将变得更健康后,经历了艰难的时期。第四象限(信用象限)-商品住宅库存继续下降。集体土地不再是“必须为国有”。根据统计局的数据显示,从一月至十一月,全国房地产开发投资11兆83亿元,比去年同期增长9.7%,与增长率在一月至十月同。其中,住宅投资7兆8027亿元,同比增长13.6%,而增长率下降了0.1个百分点。对房地产开发投资70.9%住宅投资账户。In terms of sales, from January to November, the sales area of commercial housing was 1486.04 million square meters, up 1.4% year-on-year, and the growth rate dropped 0.8 percentage points compared with January to October. The sales volume of commercial housing was 1295.08 billion yuan, up 12.1%, and the growth rate dropped 0.4 percentage points. In terms of inventory, at the end of November, the area for sale of commercial housing was 526.27 million square meters, which was 1.62 million square meters less than that at the end of October. 从统计局公布的宏观数据,可以看出,房地产市场十一月维持稳步的发展,但是从最新的二手房价格数据,近70%的全国城市房价继续恢复几个月的势头,这足以证明国内住房市场T有大幅降温调控背景下。与以前不同的是,在第三、第四线城市已显着扩大最近房价的下降,这意味着赶上第一和第二层下降。这晚的下降就不难解释。首先,这是周期性旋转的结果。首先,当一线城市的崛起,他们带头,然后第二,第三和第四线城市跟进,反过来,他们跌倒时,有一种自然的秩序;另一方面,调控政策收紧。The earliest regulation of the first-tier cities began in the "930 New Deal" in 2016. So far, the short-term restrictions are still firmly pressed on the property market in the northern upper and deeper regions, while the third and fourth-tier cities only introduced part of the regulation policies in the second half of this year, so the impact of regulation on housing prices in the region was revealed. At the end of 2018, China's land system ushered in substantive changes again. 最近,修改新的土地管理办法发布。最有趣的内容可以概括如下:非农建设用地不再是`必须是国有的,工商小产权房将被修正,及相关法律法规的同时,修订。这意味着集体土地不需要经过“国有化”过程中的冗余,但可以直接上市的工业和商业用房建设。这意味着,在地方政府土地市场供给方的垄断有望被打破,和地方政府的财政收入将大大降低。然而,直接加入合适的集体土地进入市场将大大减少工业和商业用地成本,直接受益的房地产企业的发展。然而,这种土地制度改革,同时严格限制实施范围,住宅项目被排除在外,也就是说,集体土地直接进入市场,可以不建的住宅产品,现有住宅的小产权房不能“纠正”。Therefore, the impact of the new land regulations on the housing market is relatively small, and its main impact will be the future industrial and commercial real estate market. Foreign Exchange Plate: The negotiations between the White House and the Federal Reserve went smoothly. The RMB market rose steadily with the mid-price, rising 210 points to a new high in nearly two weeks. As the U.S. government was in partial shutdown and the White House and the Federal Reserve confronted openly, investors cut exposure to high-risk assets and the dollar fell to a four-month low against the yen. On December 25, the yuan rose steadily against the dollar in early Tuesday morning, rising 210 points to a new high in nearly two weeks. Overnight USD index was depressed by multiple factors, while Sino-US negotiations continued relatively smoothly, and demand for foreign exchange settlement was partly boosted; however, major global financial markets were closed during Christmas, early market liquidity was lower than before, and the RMB trading range was slightly upward. Whether the Federal Reserve can maintain its indep迎春花的作文_著名油画家网endence and fears that the US economy may fall into recession are likely to put pressure on the Dollar bull, which eases the external pressure on the RMB and boosts the market demand for foreign exchange settlement. However, whether China and若不等式组_四年级作文大自然的启示网 the United States can reach a trade agreement remains a 王庆坨吧_鬼泣觉光伏并网发电网variable, and it is still difficult for the RMB to appreciate or depreciate substantially, so the idea of interval operation can be maintained in the short term. The dollar fell against the yen and the Swiss Franc on Tuesday as investors cut exposure to risky assets amid a partial halt in the federal government and signs of conflict between white officials and the Federal Reserve. 美国股市星期一下降了2%以上,而石油价格下跌超过6%,星期一的假期驱动的最后一天,在华盛顿的情况,加深了明年的全球经济增长放缓investors'concerns。美国股市波动率指数升至36.1,自2月6日触及50.30简要的最高水平。美国总统特朗普抨击美联储星期一,称它是“唯一的问题”的美国经济。前几天,据报道,特朗普曾讨论解雇美联储主席鲍威尔。当股票市场下跌加剧,美国财政部长Nouchin举行了一次会议,星期一与总统金融市场工作组,俗称暴跌保护小组。但召开这样的会议,通常只在严重的市场动荡的时代,对安抚市场没有影响。这可能削弱投资者的信心,其结果是适得其反。美国总统特朗普和国会的民主党领导人互相指责星期一对美国政府部分关闭并没有采取具体的行动来解决问题的迹象。全球股市大幅下跌以来,十月初在中国和美国之间的贸易争端的担忧,加息和特朗普的减税政策。许多市场被关闭在星期二的圣诞假期,而其他货币交易地。欧元兑美元几乎持平在1.1410美元,上星期一上涨0.33%。商品货币是新的压力,石油价格下跌超过6%,星期一下。中间价人民币兑美元是6.8919元,美国6.9006元今天最后一天。试交易市场观察来源于独家全球资产管理模型和误差的分析与研究。GAM俱乐部简介GAM(全球资产管理)俱乐部依托中金大金融平台的优势,如期货、信托、保险、银行和产业基金,建立投资者与投资者的沟通渠道,得到强有力的支持,许多金融机构和知名大学参与ties, collides with the spark of wisdom, and promotes new financial capital, new technology and new products. 新模型。GAM Cl高新区二手房网_triz培训网ub brings together experts from futures, options, stocks, equity, real estate, foreign exchange, bonds, gold and other industries to discuss investment opportunities and asset allocation trends in the global market, deduce algorithms and models, improve the efficiency of asset allocation and reduce asset management risks. Strategic Trading Department is mainly responsible for global asset management model and strategy research and development, and provides futures brokerage, investment consulting, trading training, fee-paying research and report business. Team members are mainly composed of PhD, Master and Bachelor of Finance, Economics, Mathematics and Computer. The proportion of PhD and Master is more than 60%. Youth, professionalism and high quality are the symbol of the team. 多年来,它一直被评为公司的优秀部门,是中粮期货增长最快的部门。试验和错误的交易受到了广泛的好评,因为它是在2012推出市场,并已经成为行业知名品牌,具有较高知名度和影响力。的scjy专业交易能力的培训课程,这是由多方共同推出,提供从入门到高级专家对实际交易的目的,课程的不同阶段。它致力于培训和交易能力的培养。它已经帮助许多客户提高他们的交易情况,走上职业交易之路。它已经成为期货行业第一培训品牌在人员方面的大小。K线聚类模型和市场结构的图像识别模型的人工智能技术的发展是在期货行业的领先地位,在该领域领先的研究趋势。风险:张耀文期货投资咨询证书号z0013564王俊期货投资咨询证书号z0013699彭书肆投资咨询资格证书z0013758号1。这一战略的观点是基于提供给研究人员的信息,与实际结果可能大不相同由于条件有限。投资者必须独立做出交易决策。本公司不保证交易的结果。2。市场的不确定性,和过去的战略观点一致,不保证当前的战略观点的正确性。公司和其他研究人员可以从这些策略表达了不同的意见。三。在法律允许的范围内,一个公司或附属机构可能涉及的品种进行交易,也可能为其他公司的交易提供服务。责任编辑:吴华张

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